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  1. Тип: Реферат
    Roman Villa. -three years after the birth of Christ the finest soldiers the world had known came against the ancient Britons and conquered their land. These soldiers were called Romans.after their chief city Rome in Italy. They ruled Britain for nearly four hundred years have left many traces behind them. While in Britain. one can still see the remains of their splendid roads.the ruins of the forts they built and parts of the great walls they erected to defend their towns. In the southern parts of the country homes called villas have been found. Villas are not great castles with thick walls towers built as a protection against enemies.but simple dwelling - houses unfitted for defense. That shows how peaceful the country was when first these villas were built under Roman rule. On the heights of Greenwich Park overlooking the Thames there is a piece of pavement about two feet square. It was once part of the floor of one of these country houses. It is made of small pieces of red tile. each about a ..
  2. Тип: Реферат
    Sir Thomas More. More rose from humble origins to achieve the highest political and judicial office of England.second only to that of the king. He was recognized throughout early sixteenth-century Europe as one of the great lawyers.Christian humanists.and classical scholars of his day. ven at a very early age. More gave clear evidence of his uncommon gifts. Because of this.a family friend successfully persuaded his father to allow him to attend Oxford University. More so enjoyed his studies there that his father became alarmed. Two years into the program. he decided that his son should learn something useful. Under what seems to have been considerable coercion. Thomas returned to London to study law at New Inn. Although this law program was among the best and most demanding in London. More found time to continue his study of Greek. philosophy. literature. and theology with such world-renowned teachers as Linacre. Grocyn. and Colet. as well as with the pious and learned Carthusians. Meanwhile. More ..
  3. Тип: Реферат
    Smith. two centuries.Adam Smith remains a towering figure in the history of economic thought. Known primarily for a single work. Inquiry into the nature an causes of the Wealth of Nations. (177. the first comprehensive system of political economy. Smith is more properly regarded as a social philosopher whose economic writings constitute only the capstone to an overarching view of political and social evolution. If his masterwork is viewed in relation to his earlier lectures on moral philosophy and government. as well as to allusions in. Theory of Moral Sentiments. (175 to a work he hoped to write on “the general principles of law and government. and of the different revolutions they have undergone in the different ages and periods of society”. then. Wealth of Nations. be seen not merely as a treatise on economics but as a partial exposition of a much larger scheme of historical evolution. Life. much is known about Smith’s thought than about his life. Though the exact date of his birth is unknown...
  4. Тип: Реферат
    Federalism in 1990s. it would be an overstatement to suggest that the average American has a clear concept of meaning of federalism in 1994. there is some evidence than issues.involving locus of governmental power are important to many. For example. polling organizations frequently ask citizens - which level of government most enjoys their trust and confidence. The results consistently indicate. that people trust their local governments most and their national government least. The states drift along in the middle. So. most Americans view local government the most favorably. However. as is the case in most areas of our political life. attitudes change significantly when citizens are faced with specific issues. Even though Americans appear to be committed to federalism in the abstract. they always seem to have lengthy list of problems which they want the federal government because state and local governments have failed to resolve them. or a list of services which are perceived as poorly provided or n..
  5. Тип: Реферат
    Royal ceremonies. British people are proud of pageants and ceremonies of the national capital - London. Many of them are world famous and attract numerous tourists from all over the world. They include daily ceremonies and annuals. Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace at 130 a. m. Ceremony of the Keys at 10 p. m. in the Tower. Mounting the Guard at the Horse Guards square are most popular daily ceremonies. Of those which are held annually the oldest are the most cherished are. the glorious pageantry of Trooping the Color. which marks the official birthday of the Queen (the second Saturday in June). Firing the Royal Salute to mark anniversaries of the Queen's Accession on February 6 and her birthday on April 2 opening of the Courts marking the start of the Legal Year in October. and Lord Mayor's Show on the second Saturday in November. when the newly elected Lord Mayor is driven in the beautiful guilded coach pulled by six white horses to take the Royal Court of Justice where he takes his oath..
  6. Тип: Реферат
    traditional holidays. Britain is famous for its old traditions. Some of them existed in ancient times and survived through centuries. Some of them appeared when Christianity came to British isles. Speaking about religious holidays one can’t but mention Easter. Pancake Day and Mother’s Day. The dates of these holidays aren’t strict. they depend on the date of Easter. that varies every year. day is the popular name for the Shrove Tuesday. the day before the first day of Lent. In the middle ages people on that day made merry and ate pancakes. The ingredients of pancakes are all forbidden by Church during Lent. that is why they have to be used the day before. The most common form of celebrating this day in the old times was the all town ball game or tug-of-war. in which everyone was tearing here and there. trying to get the ball or rope into their part of the city. Today the only custom. that is observed throughout Britain is pancake eating. the English people the best-known name for the fourth in Le..
  7. Тип: Реферат
    Associations. bargain-limited liability. CHARACTERISTICS OF A CORPORATION. PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A CORPORATION. Entity Status. -a corporation is a legal entity created under the authority of legislature. Limited Liability. -as a legal entity. a corp is responsible for its own debts.its sh’s liability is limited to their investment; Free Transferability of Interest. -shares.representing ownership interests.are freely transferable; Centralized Management and Control. -a corp’s management is centralised in a board of dirs and officers. Shs have no direct control over the board’s activities; Duration. -Continuity of Existence-a corp is capable of perpetual existence; Taxation. -a corp. as an entity. pays taxes on its own income.shs are taxed only on dividends; Remember Attributes of the Corporation-CLIFF. Centralization of management. Limited liability. Forever (perpetual duration). Freely alienable (shares can be sold). CORPORATIONS DISTINGUISHED FROM OTHER FORMS OF BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS. GE..
  8. Тип: Реферат
    Relationships in Japan. relationships in Japan are characterized by a well-structured hierarchy and a strong emphasis on nurturing personal contacts. Generally. they are built up over long periods of time or are based on common rootuch as birthplace.school or college. Also. an unusually strong emphasis is placed on social activities to strengthen ties. It is not surprising. therefore. that those looking in from the outside may see the Japanese business world as comparatively hard to break into. In fact. there are many different kinds of business relationships.but most share two features they have been built up slowly and carefully. and much time is spent in keeping them up to date. relationships in Japan are part of an ever-broadening circle that starts within the company (uchi - inside. or "us"). and moves towards the outside (soto) to include related companies.industry or business organizations.and the like. Japanese companies have a series of very close relationships with a number of other companies t..
  9. Тип: Реферат
    a career. you leave school you understand that the time to choose your future profession has come. It's not an easy task to make the right choice of a job. I have known for a long time that leaving school is the beginning of my independent life. the beginning of a far more serious examination of my abilities and character. have asked myself a lot of times."What do I want to be when I leave school? " A few years ago it was difficult for me to give a definite answer. As the years passed I changed my mind a lot of times about which science or field of industry to specialise in. It was difficult to make up my mind and choose one of the hundreds jobs to which I might be better suited. are many worthy professions.but not of them are in demand now. I think. now in Russia in demand are professions connected with economics.computers.advertising business and tourism. couple of years ago I wanted to become a biologist. I thought it was a very interesting profession. I was good at biology in school. But in the..
  10. Тип: Реферат
    in Britan. Day. December 25.s probably the most popular holiday in Great Britan. It is a family holiday. Traditionally all relatives and friends give each other presents. So before Christmas all the department stores and shops are crowded. everybody is choosing a present. In general. people get prepared for this holiday very carefully. They decorate their houses in the traditional way. that is the Christmas trees are set up in houses.in the streets and churches. The Christmas trees are always decorated with fairy lights.angels and small toys. In addition litlle packets with nuts.candies and special biscuits are hung on the tree. Presents are put around the tree and artificial ''frost'' is scattered over the branches. Germans are believed to be the first to use the Christmas tree in their celebrations.and Martin Luther was the first to place a star on the top of the tree. This star represent the star that appeared over the stable in which Christ was born. Great Britain the Christmas tree became popula..
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